Angela C. Barker
James, C. E., Dupuis-Lozeron, E., & Hauert, C. A. (2012). Appraisal of musical syntax violations by primary school children: Effects of age and practice. Swiss Journal of Psychology, 71(3), 161–168. Retrieved April 26, 2014. doi:10.1024/1421-0185/a000084.
In this study, the researchers investigated the ability of 112 children (1st to 5th graders) to detect appropriate musical syntax of cadences in simple (monophonic children’s songs) and complex (polyphonic piano pieces) musical examples, and then to rate each as congruous, incongruous, or slightly incongruous. The Western tonal music examples were all original and unfamiliar to the children. James et al. recorded the children’s responses using “a continuous scale with positive and negative…